The Myth of Batman: Intra- and Interdiscursive Transformations
pdf

Abstract views: 80
PDF Downloads: 20

Keywords

Batman
Myth
Multimodal Discourse
Media
Authorship
Intertextuality
Interdiscursivity
Comics
Animation
Film
Video Games

How to Cite

Kutovaia, A., & Mikhailovskaya, E. (2020). The Myth of Batman: Intra- and Interdiscursive Transformations. Galactica Media: Journal of Media Studies, 2(3), 47-88. https://doi.org/10.46539/gmd.v2i3.115

Abstract

The study focuses on the multimodal discourse of the superhero Batman which is viewed as both a corpus of texts about Batman and a process of their development in various media, such as comics, animation, film, video games. Since the launch of the 1930s’ comics, the discourse has been incessantly developing, getting more and more intertwined with technology and new technology-based arts and industries. The evolution of the discourse can also be accounted for by the changing needs of the audience, as well as the shifts in the audience itself. At present, Batman discourse is comprised of a vast number of media texts, which intersect and influence each other. Each of these presents a new interpretation of the myth, based on the reesthetisization of basic constituent codes. The research aims to cover some aspects that define Batman as a cultural phenomenon of today, such as Batman as part of contemporary mythology and its relatability to the contemporary historical context, authorship in both the multimodal discourse and its media subdiscourses, intertextual and interdiscursive transformations.

https://doi.org/10.46539/gmd.v2i3.115
pdf

References

[GameSpot]. (2012, May 24). Voice Talent – Batman: Arkham City Behind the Scenes Video [Video File]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PnkcZF34SE0

[Warner Bros. Entertainment]. (2013, February 6). Batman: Year One | Heart of Vengeance: Returning Batman To His Roots | Warner Bros. Entertainment [Video File]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lh3nlAZHJ0A

[Warner Bros. Entertainment]. (2020, April 20). Joker | Behind The Scenes with Joaquin Phoenix and Todd Phillips | Warner Bros. Entertainment [Video File]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=1342&v=cLVNJ50vCDI&feature=emb_logo

Ackerman, S. (2008). Batman’s Dark Knight Reflects Cheney Policy: Joker’s Senseless, Endless Violence Echoes Al Qaeda. The Washington Independent. Reposted at https://newsgrist.typepad.com/underbelly/2008/07/the-hero-we-des.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+typepad%2Fnewsgrist%2Funderbelly+%28NEWSgrist+-+where+spin+is+art%29

Asay, P. (2012). God on the Streets of Gotham. What the Big Screen Batman Can Teach Us about God and Ourselves. Illinois: Tyndale house publishers, inc.

Azzarello, B. & Bermejo, L. (2019). Batman: Damned. Burbank, California: DC Comics

Bakhtin, M. (1984). Rabelais and His World. Indiana: Indiana University Press

Barr, M., Roy, A. & O’Neil, D. (1987). Detective Comics Vol. 1 #572. Burbank, California: DC Comics

Barthes, R. (1977). Image Music Text. London: Fontana Press

Barthes, R. (1996). Mythologies. Moscow: Publishing house named Sabashnikovs (in Russian)

Bektemirov, F. (2019). Gotham, Resident Evil. The Art of Cinema, (9/10), 36-44.

Brooker, W. (2012, July 19). The Dark Knight Rises. Times Higher Education (THE). Retrieved from www.timeshighereducation.com/features/culture/the-dark-knight-rises/420605.article

Brooker, W. (2012). Hunting the Dark Knight: Twenty-First Century Batman. New York: I. B. Tauri s& Co Ltd

Busiek, K., Dini, P., Gaiman, N., Krueger, J., Lee, S., Moore, A., Nicieza, F., Shooter, J., Simone, G., Smith, K., et al. (2001). Heroes: The World’s Greatest Super Hero Creators Honor The World’s Greatest Heroes 9-11-2001. New York: Marvel Comics

Campbell, J. (2004). The Hero with A Thousand Faces. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press

Dozier, W. (1966–1968). Batman. New York City, ABC: Greenway Productions, 20th Century Fox Television

Goldberg, J. & Hillhouse, J. (Producers). (2012). The Journey of Bruce Wayne [Supplements for 'The Dark Knight Rises']. United States of America: Warner Bros. Entertainment, Inc.

Gorelikov, A. (2019). Joker, between cinema and circus. Art of cinema, (9/10), 20-28.

Guber P., Peters J. (Producers), & Burton, T. (Director). (1989). Batman. United States of America: Warner Bros. Pictures

Hill, S. (2009). Batman: Arkham Asylum. London: Rocksteady Studios

Hill, S. (2011). Batman: Arkham City. London: Rocksteady Studios

Hill, S. (2015). Batman: Arkham Knight. London: Rocksteady Studios

Holmes, E. & Richer, B. (2013). Batman: Arkham Origins. Montréal: WB Games Montréal

Hull, R. (Producer). (2008). Batman Unmasked: The Psychology Of The Dark Knight [Supplements for 'The Dark Knight']. United States of America: Warner Bros. Entertainment, Inc.

Ip, J. (2011). The Dark Knight's War on Terrorism. Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law. Retrieved from https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/159590487.pdf

Kane, B. & Finger, B. (1939). Detective Comics Vol. 1 #27. Burbank, California: DC Comics

Kane, B. & Finger, B. (1939). Detective Comics Vol. 1 #33. Burbank, California: DC Comics

Kane, B. & Finger, B. (1940). Batman #1. Burbank, California: DC Comics

Kane, B. & Finger, B. (1940). Batman #4. Burbank, California: DC Comics

Kozlov, E. V. (1999) Communicativeness of comics in the textual and semiotic aspects. PhD Thesis. Volgograd. (in Russian)

Langley, T. (2012). Batman and Psychology: A Dark and Stormy Knight. New Jersey, Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Lin, D., Lord, P., Miller, C., Lee, R. (Producers), & McKay, C. (Director). (2017). The Lego Batman Movie. United States of America: Warner Bros. Pictures

Loeb, J. & Lee, J. (2003). Batman: Hush. Burbank, California: DC Comics

Losev, A. F. (1996). The mythology of the Greeks and Romans. Moscow: Thought (in Russian)

Losev, A.F. (1990). Dialectics of myth. Moscow: Truth (in Russian)

MacDowell, J. (2013). Happy Endings in Hollywood Cinema. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press Ltd

MacGregor-Scott, P. (Producer), & Schumacher, J. (Director). (1997). Batman & Robin. United States of America: Warner Bros. Pictures

McCloud, S. (1994). Understanding Comics: The Invisible Art. New York: Harper Perennial

McGowan, T. (2015). Stumbling Over the Superhero: Christopher Nolan’s Victories and Compromises. In J. Furby & S. Joy (Eds.). The Cinema of Christopher Nolan (pp. 164-175). New York: Columbia University Press

McKee, R. (1997) Story. Substance, Structure, Style, and the Principles of Screenwriting. New York: ReganBooks An Imprint of HarperCollins Publishers

Milchan, A. (Producer), & Scorsese, M. (Director). (1982). The King of Comedy. United States of America: 20th Century Fox.

Miller, F. & Mazzucchelli, D. (1987). Batman: Year One. Burbank, California: DC Comics

Moore, A. & Bolland, B. (1988). Batman: The Killing Joke. Burbank, California: DC Comics

Morrison, G. (2010). Batman: R.I.P. Burbank, California: DC Comics

Mudle, K. & Stauder, J. (2016) Batman: The Telltale Series. San Rafael, California: Telltale Games

Murphy, S. (2018). Batman: White Knight. Burbank, California: DC Comics

Nolan, C., Thomas E. & Roven C. (Producers), & Nolan, C. (Director). (2008). The Dark Knight. United States of America: Warner Bros. Pictures

Nolan, C., Thomas E., Roven C. & Franco L. (Producers), & Nolan, C. (Director). (2005). Batman Begins. United States of America: Warner Bros. Pictures

Pheasant-Kelly, F. (2015). Representing Trauma: Grief, Amnesia and Traumatic Memory in Nolan’s New Millenial Films. In J. Furby & S. Joy (Eds.). The Cinema of Christopher Nolan (pp. 99–120). New York: Columbia University Press

Phillips, T. (Producer), & Phillips, T. (Director). (2019). Joker. United States of America: Warner Bros. Pictures

Round, J. (2014). Gothic in Comics and Graphic Novels: A Critical Approach. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company

Schopp, A. (2009). Interrogating the Manipulation of Fear: V for Vendetta, Batman Begins, Good Night, and Good Luch, and America's “War on Terror”. In A. Schopp (Ed.). The War on Terror and American Popular Culture: September 11 and Beyond (pp. 259-287). Madison, New Jersey: Fairleigh Dickinson Univ Press

Sharipina, T.A. (2007). Perception of antiquity in the literary consciousness of Germany in the XX century (the Trojan cycle of myths). Doctoral Dissertation. Moscow (in Russian)

Shklovsky, V. B. (1925). Art as a device. In Theory of prose (pp. 7-20). Moscow: Krug (in Russian)

Slyshkin G. G. & Efremova M. A. (2004). Filmtext (experience of linguocultural analysis). Moscow: Aquarius Publishers (in Russian)

Snyder, S. & Capullo, G. (2013). Batman: Death of the Family. Burbank, California: DC Comics

Snyder, S. & Paquette, Y. (2016). Batman #49. Burbank, California: DC Comics

Sonin, A.G. (2006). Modeling the mechanisms of understanding polycode texts. Doctoral Dissertation. Moscow (in Russian)

Sorokin, Yu.A. & Tarasov, E.F. (1990). Creolized texts and their communicative function. In Optimization of speech impact (pp. 180-186). Moscow: Nauka (in Russian)

Spiegelman, A. (1996). The Complete Maus. New York: Pantheon

Spiegelman, A. (2004). In the Shadow of No Towers. New York: Random House

Starlin, J., Aparo, J. & O'Neil, D. (1988). Batman: A Death in the Family. Burbank, California: DC Comics

Straczynski, M. J. (2001). The Amazing Spider-Man Vol.2 #36. New York: Marvel Comics

Talal, A. (2019). Myth and Life in Cinema: Meanings and Instruments of Dramatic Language. Moscow: Alpina non-fiction (in Russian)

Timm, B. & Radomski, E. (1992–1995). Batman: The Animated Series. United States of America: Warner Bros.

Toh, J. (2010). The Tools and Toys of (the) War (on Terror): Consumer Desire, Military Fetish, and Regime Change in Batman Begins. In J. Birkenstein, A. Froula & K. Randell (Eds.). Reframing 9/11. Film, Popular Culture and the “War on Terror” (pp. 127-141). New York: The Continuum International Publishing Group Inc.

Tsvetkov, A. (2019) Chaos and anarchy. Art of cinema, (9/10), 45-51. (in Russian)

Uricchio, W. & Pearson, R. (1991). The Many Lives of the Batman: Critical Approaches to a Superhero and His Media. London: BFI Publishing

Vogler, C. (1998). The Writer’s Journey. Mythic Structure for Writers. Studio City, CA: Michael Wiese Productions

Zaretskaya, A.N. (2010). Features of the implementation of subtext in film discourse. PhD Thesis. Chelyabinsk (in Russian)

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.