The paper discusses the prospects for the formation of strong Artificial Intelligence in its relation to the realization of human immortality. Russian cosmism, NBIC-technologies, as well as the latest achievements in the fields of science, technology and philosophical discourse are taken for the premises for the formation of a transhumanism, posthumanism and essentiocognitivism paradigms. The theme of immortality is studied in history, philosophy, culture and the natural sciences. The tendencies towards augmentation of Homo sapiens for overcoming diseases, suffering, senility and death are studied. The purpose of the research is to conduct a consistent analysis of the phenomenon of immortality and the ethical foundations of the stated philosophical trends. The inquiry provides for a number of results: the achievement of immortality seems feasible, and leading to the good of all intelligent living species; humanism requires renewal to create imperatives of new ethics; scientific education and support of scientific and technological progress contribute to the development of the philosophy of transhumanism, posthumanism and essentiocognitivism; anti-scientism leads to regression and degeneration of species; creation of artificial intelligence requires the preloading of the values of the new ethics. The article will be interesting to philosophers of science, specialists of the indicated directions, specialists in the field of life extension technologies.
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