The article explores the dynamics of the image of V.I. Chapaev in the Soviet and post-Soviet media space. Using the theory of post-memory by M. Hirsch and S. O’Donoghue as methodology of research, the author analyzes the transformation of the main characteristics of the image, its place in Russian historical memory and in the cultural tradition. V.I. Chapaev became one of the most significant characters in the Soviet cultural tradition. After the fall of the Soviet Union the image of Chapaev however retained its significance in the context of rethinking the Soviet heritage. The article highlights the following stages of transformation of V.I. Chapaev’s image: the inclusion in the "founding myth" and gradual transformation into a Soviet epic hero (crowding out collective trauma); debunking the heroic status within the framework of the "carnival culture" and turning into a character of anecdotes (de-traumatization in the process of post-memory formation); transformation into a hero of Internet memes (transformation of post-memory and de-actualization of the themes of the Civil War). The author argues that the burst of memes depicting Chapaev in 2020 demonstrates a post-ironic attitude to the Black Lives Matter movement in Russian society. The author concludes that the fact that Chapaev’s image was included in a fundamentally different political and cultural context demonstrates that the symbolic potential of the Civil War memory in Russia is entirely exhausted and can no longer serve as a tool for the formation of commemorative practices.
Anikin, D. A. (2020). Transfer of the past: cultural memory in conditions of migratory flows. Bulletin of Tomsk State University, (452), 66–72. (In Russian).
Arkhipova, A. S. (2003). Anecdote and his prototype: the genesis of the text and the formation of the genre. Moscow: Publishing House of the Russian State Humanitarian University. (In Russian).
Arkhipova, A. S. (2020, February 6). Anecdotes about Chapaev allowed Soviet citizens to laugh at everything sacred. Retrieved from Business FM St. Petersburg website: https://bfmspb.ru/novosti/aleksandra-arxipova-anekdotyi-pro-chapaeva-pozvolyali-sovetskim-grazhdanam-smeyatsya-nad-vsem-sakralnyim (In Russian).
Bakhtin, M. M. (2020). The work of Francois Rabelais and the folk culture of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Moscow: Science. (In Russian).
Bykov, D. L. (2020, October 11). And ahead of Chapaev on a dashing horse. Retrieved from Sobesednik website: https://sobesednik.ru/obshchestvo/20201005-a-vperedi-chapaev-na-lihom-kon (In Russian).
Clark, K. (2002). The Soviet novel: history as ritual. Ekaterinburg: Ural University Publ. (In Russian).
Connerton, P. (2008). Seven types of forgetting. Memory Studies, 1(1), 59–71. doi: 10.1177/1750698007083889
Dorson, R. (2004). Fakelore. In A. Dundes (Ed.), Folklore: Critical Concepts in Literary and Cultural Studies (pp. 281–289). New York: Routledge.
Fedor, J. (2017). Introduction: War and memory in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus. In J. Fedor, M. Kangaspuro, J. Lassila, & T. Zhurzhenko (Eds.), War and memory in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus (pp. 1–40). London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Gramatchikova, N. B., & Khoruzhenko, T. I. (2017). Postfolklore and internetlor. Yekaterinburg: Publishing House of Ural University. (In Russian).
Hirsch, M. (2012). The Generation of Postmemory: Writing and Visual Culture After the Holocaust. New York: Columbia University Press.
Hudak, D. A., Dale, J. A., Hudak, M. A., & DeGood, D. E. (1991). Effects of Humorous Stimuli and Sense of Humor on Discomfort. Psychological Reports, 69(3), 779–786. doi: 10.2466/pr0.1922.214.171.1249
Konstantinou, L. (2017). Four faces of postirony. In R. van den Akker, A. Gibbons, & T. Vermeulen (Eds.), Metamodernism: Historicity, affect, and depth after postmodernism. London; New York: Rowman & Littlefield.
Koposov, N. E. (2011). High security memory: History and politics in Russia. Moscow: New Literary Review. (In Russian).
Laruelle, M. (2019). Commemorating 1917 in Russia: Ambivalent State History Policy and the Church’s Conquest of the History Market. Europe-Asia Studies, 71(2), 249–267. doi: 10.1080/09668136.2018.1552922
Linchenko, A., & Anikin, D. (2020). The political uses of the past in modern Russia: The images of the October revolution 1917 in the politics of memory of Russian parties. European Politics and Society, 21(3), 356–370. doi: 10.1080/23745118.2019.1645430
Malinova, O. Yu. (2018). The commemoration in Russia of the centenary of the 1917 revolution(s): Analysis of strategies of the key mnemonic actors. Polis. Political Studies, (1), 9–25. doi: 10.17976/jpps/2018.01.02 (In Russian).
Neklyudov, S. Y. (2016). A few words about "postfolklore". Retrieved from Folklore and postfolklore: structure, typology, semiotics website: http://www.ruthenia.ru/folklore/postfolk.htm (In Russian).
Neklyudov, S. Y. (1995). After folklore. Living antiquity, (1), 2–4. (In Russian).
Nevo, O., Keinan, G., & Teshimovsky-Arditi, M. (1993). Humor and pain tolerance. HUMOR, 6(1), 71–88. doi: 10.1515/humr.19126.96.36.199
Nora, P. (1999). Between memory and history, the problems of places. In France-Memory (pp. 17-50). St. Petersburg: St. Petersburg University Press.а. (In Russian).
O’Donoghue, S. (n.d.). Postmemory as Trauma? Some Theoretical Problems and Their Consequences for Contemporary Literary Criticism. Retrieved from Politika website: https://www.politika.io/fr/notice/postmemory-as-trauma-some-theoretical-problems-and-their-consequences-for-contemporary
Odesskiy, M. P. (2007). Heroic myth about Chapaev. New look, (11). (In Russian).
Olick, J. K. (2016). The Sins of the Fathers: Germany, Memory, Method. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Olick, J. K., & Robbins, J. (1998). Social Memory Studies: From “Collective Memory” to the Historical Sociology of Mnemonic Practices. Annual Review of Sociology, 24(1), 105–140. doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.24.1.105
Pavlov, A. V. (2019). Brave New “Digital World”: Postirony as a Value System of Millennials’ Worldview. Horizons of humanitarian knowledge, (3), 16–31. doi: 10.17805/ggz.2019.3.2 (In Russian).
Safronova, Yu. A. (2018). Third wave of memory studies: Twenty-three years against wool. Political Science, (3), 12–27. doi: 10.31249/poln/2018.03.01 (In Russian).
Schenk, F. B. (2007). Alexander Nevsky in Russian cultural memory: saint, ruler, national hero (1263-2000). Moscow: New Literary Review. (In Russian).
Seth, B. A. (1990). Cultural Analysis of the Russo-Soviet Anekdot. BA: University of Texas.
Shcherbakova, E. (2020, November 11). opening of the Monument of Reconciliation is postponed. Retrieved from Sevastopol newspaper website: http://sevastopol.press/2020/11/11/otkrytie-pamjatnika-primirenia-otkladyvaetsja/ (In Russian).
Sherlock, T. (2007). Historical Narratives in the Soviet Union and Post-Soviet Russia: Destroying the Settled Past, Creating an Uncertain Future. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Vasiliev, Yu. (2020, November 4). Sladkov vs Chapaev: features of national reconciliation. Retrieved from Vzglyad website: https://vz.ru/society/2020/11/4/1068927.html (In Russian).
Verch, J. (2018). Narrative tools, truth and quick thinking in national memory: the mnemonic confrontation between Russia and the West over Ukraine. Historical Expertise, (2), 15–32. doi: 10.31754/2409-6105-2018-2-15-32 (In Russian).
Werner, D. (2003, June 13). Anecdotes from Russia" and folklore of the Internet era. Retrieved from Russian magazine website: http://old.russ.ru/netcult/20030617_verner.html (In Russian).
Zinovieva, N. A. (2016). Translation of sociocultural codes in the creation of an information product: analysis of Internet memes (PhD Thesis). St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg. (In Russian).
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.