Digital Migration and Social Inclusion of Senior Citizens


ICTs, Senior Citizens, Digital, Migration, Social Inclusion

How to Cite

Ezeh, N., & Mboso, A. (2019). Digital Migration and Social Inclusion of Senior Citizens. Galactica Media: Journal of Media Studies, 1(2), 62-79.


We now live in a digitally saturated environment. The notions of displacement apply also in the digital realm, especially with regard to senior citizens. Researching the usage of digital media by senior citizens is of relevance, as an unequal access and competencies related to digital media remains a problem of their social inclusion in a digitalized world. Anchored on the Uses and Gratifications Theory, this study sets to investigate the usage, mode of usage and what influences the usage ofInformation and Communication Technologies/digital media among seniors. Survey method was used with questionnaire as the instrument for data collection to sample 300 senior citizens in Asaba and Calabar, cities in theSouth-South geo-political zone of Nigeria. The study found that although access to the digital media has increased among the senior citizens, usage gap is still clearly visible as most seniors do not play active roles in digital activities. It is recommended that there should be community support for digital literacy of the older adults so that digital society would be all inclusive, not having these most vulnerable citizens excluded from digital activities and involvement.


Babbie, E. R. (2010). The practice of social research. Belmont, CA: Wardsworth.

Cash. H., Rae, C. D. & Steel, A. H., Winkler, A. (2012). Internet addiction: A brief summary of research and practice. Current Psychiatry Review., 8(4) 292–298.

Christtensen, L. & Jerslev, A. (2016). Media presence- mobile modernities. In NORDMEDIA; Media Presence and Mobile Modernities. Christa Christensen & Anne Jerslev ed. Sweden: Ale Tryckteam.

Chou, H. T. G., & Edge, N. (2012). “They are happier and having better lives than I am”: the impact of using Facebook on perceptions of others’ lives. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 15(2), 117-121.

Diaz, Y., Evans, L., & Gallagher, R. (2011). Anti social networking: how do texting social media affect our children. Retrieved from

Ejechi, E. O.(2013), Information and Communication Technologyin academics: how far with elderly Nigerian academics? International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 3 (6), 78-88.

Givskov, C. (nd). Newmedia and elderly people's social relationships. Retrieved from

Jennings, M. K. & V. Zeitner. (2003). Internet use and civic engagement: a longitudinal analysis. The Public Opinion Quarterly, 67(3), 311–334.

Joo, T. M. & Teng C. E. (2017). Impacts of social media (facebook)on human communication and relationships: A view on behavioral change and social unity. International Journal of Knowledge Content Development & Technology, 7(4), 27-50.

Kohut, A. (2008). Social networking and online videos take off: Internet’s broader role in campaign. The PEW Research Center.

Kushin, M., & Yamamoto, M. (2010). Did social media really matter? College students' use of online media and political decision making in the 2008 election. Mass Communication and Society, 13(1), 608-630.

Morris M. G. & Venkatesh, V. (2000). Age differences in technology adoption decisions: implications for a changing workforce. Personnel Psychology, 53(2), 375–403.

Adebunmi, A. Y. (2007). Old age and social security in Nigeria: The challenges of the New world Order. International Journal of Social and Management Sciences, 1(1), 73-86

Oluyinka T. A. (2017). Influence of ICTs on the information behavior of the elderly in Nigeria. International Journal of Information Communication and Human Development, 9(3), 9-18

Omenugha, K. A. (2010). Influence of modern ICTs on the academic and social behaviour of students in a selected Nigerian university. Journal of Communication and Media Research, 2(1), 43-53.

Omotayo, F. O. (2015). Adoption and use of information and communication technologies by educated elderly people in Ibadan metropolis, Nigeria Indian Journal of Information Sources and Services, 5(1), 34-45.

Probono Australia, (2012). Social media use impacts families and relationships. Retrieved from

Rogers, E. (2003). Diffusion of Innovations. (5thed). New York: Free Press.

Rogers E. M. (1997). Diffusion of Innovations Theory. Retrieved from

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.