Pandemics are social disasters provoking panic, acute stress and post-traumatic stress disorder, massive aggression, and other psycho-emotional and behavioural disorders. The strength of these reactions is associated with informational conditioning of a person in a period when archaic layers that cannot be rationalized are actualized in their psyche. The time has come for the analysis of information strategies that reinforce or deactivate the feelings of uncertainty and vital threat that arose in society. The paper explores psychological defences and coping strategies, forms of aggression and hostility that take place during a pandemic and similar disasters. The study also includes an assessment of the Russian-language Internet content from April to August 2020, affecting the COVID-19 pandemic from the point of view of information security. We analysed the techniques of cyber fraud and phishing.
The author reveals effectiveness of communicating information using the image of an eyewitness of events or an expert. The position of an observer-journalist is rarely effective in reducing social tension. In panic, society needs samples of adaptive behaviour and directives, humour that relieves fear. The reason for the panic and aggression is the low level of awareness of the population as well as following false authority.
The results obtained can be used by experts in the field of information security, state and municipal employees, students and postgraduate students, the journalistic community.
Aaron, G., & Rasmussen, R. (2017). Global Phishing Survey. Retrieved from APWG website: https://apwg.org/globalphishingsurvey/
Alexandrovsky, Y. A., Lobastov, O. S., & Spivak, L. I. (1991). Psychogenias in extreme conditions. Moscow. (In Russian).
Atalan, A. (2020). Is the lockdown important to prevent the COVID-19 pandemic? Effects on psychology, environment and economy-perspective. Annals of Medicine and Surgery, 56, 38–42. doi: 10.1016/j.amsu.2020.06.010
Averkov, O., Barchuk, A., Bode, I., Kiselev, Y., Matskeplishvili, S., Napalkov, D., ... Erlich, A. (2020). Resolution of the Council of Experts: Current Issues of the COVID-19 Pandemic in the Russian Federation. Retrieved from https://magboard.online/covid/ (In Russian).
Baranova, A. (2020). Coronavirus. Survival Instructions. Moscow: Litres. (In Russian).
Bardenstein, L. M., Kopytin, V. A., Molodetskikh, V. A., & Kurashov, A. S. (2007). Toward a History of the Study of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Russian Medical Journal, (4), 51–53. (In Russian).
Boyko, Y. P. (2003). Peculiarities of anti-stress medical care in emergencies and their consequences. Social and Clinical Psychiatry, 13(2), 60–67. (In Russian).
Bundalo, N. L. (2009). Chronic Post Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Monograph. Krasnoyarsk: Krasnoyarsk State Medical University. (In Russian).
Burenok, A. (2020a). Amsterdam you wouldn't recognize: Queues at a coffeeshop without masks. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3FpOmvtpoLs (In Russian).
Burenok, A. (2020b). Canada under quarantine. Life during an epidemic in Toronto. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RseCckxPR6Y (In Russian).
Burenok, A. (2020c). The Istanbul You Don't Recognize: Turkey Captured by an Epidemic. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S4HYckEtGc8 (In Russian).
Burenok, A. (2020d). France you wouldn't recognize, and Sweden against the rules. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jB7v2o-UbdE (In Russian).
Burenok, A. (2020e). Japan is quarantined. Why is it not so with us? Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CQ7tehdvAx8 (In Russian).
Chakraborty, I., & Maity, P. (2020). COVID-19 outbreak: Migration, effects on society, global environment and prevention. Science of The Total Environment, 728, 138882. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138882
Chaldaeva, L. A., Kilyachkov, A. A., & Yakorev, A. A. (2020). On the formation of state functions to ensure security in the virtual space of Russia. Power, 28(3), 37–46. doi: 10.31171/vlast.v28i3.7293 (In Russian).
Coronavirus - symptoms, signs, general information, answers to questions-Minister of Health of Russia. (2020). Retrieved from Ministry of Health of Russia website: https://covid19.rosminzdrav.ru/ (In Russian).
Coronavirus COVID-19: Official information about coronavirus in Russia on the portal. (2020). Retrieved from Stopcoronavirus.rf website: https://xn--80aesfpebagmfblc0a.xn--p1ai/ (In Russian).
Coronavirus in Moscow: Statistics, full official information and the latest news. (2020). Retrieved from Official site of the Mayor of Moscow website: https://www.mos.ru/city/projects/covid-19/?adfox&utm_place=893819&utm_ban=3710761&ues=1 (In Russian).
COVID-19 related publications. COVID-19: How you can help. (2020). Retrieved from Publons.com website: https://publons.com/publon/covid-19/?sort_by=date
Dedova, K. N. (2012). The role of post-traumatic stress disorder in the pathogenesis of organic emotional and personality disorders in combatants during the period of long-term effects of combat mental trauma (PhD Thesis). Kirov Military Medical Academy. S.M. Kirov Military Medical Academy, St. Petersburg. (In Russian).
Dmitrieva, T. B. (Ed.). (2005). Post-traumatic stress disorder. Moscow: V.P. Serbsky SSP State Research Center. (In Russian).
Dmitrieva, T. B., Volozhin, A. I., Aleksandrovsky, Y. A., Kekelidze, Z. I., Kogan, B. M., Polozhyi, B. S., ...Subbotin, Y. K. (2001). Social stress and mental health. Moscow: All-Russian Research and Training Center for Continuing Medical and Pharmaceutical Education. (In Russian).
Dr. Komarovsky. (2020a). Coronavirus | Events and Comments. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eIbwdObYZ1g (In Russian).
Dr. Komarovsky. (2020b). Coronavirus: An overview of what's new and current. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YLAv4jz70pM (In Russian).
Drumova, M. V. (2003). Clinical and psychological features of combatant post-traumatic stress disorder (PhD Thesis). Novosibirsk State Medical Academy, Novosibirsk. (In Russian).
Efanov, A. A. (2016). Moral panics as a factor of social change (PhD Thesis). N.P. Ogarev National Research Mordovian State University, Saransk. (In Russian).
Egorov, I. (2020). Moscow permit regime. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LLMeaDyFFp4 (In Russian).
Esparza, J. (2020). Lessons From History: What Can We Learn From 300 Years of Pandemic Flu That Could Inform the Response to COVID-19? American Journal of Public Health, 110(8), 1160–1161. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2020.305761
Fontanesi, L., Marchetti, D., Mazza, C., Di Giandomenico, S., Roma, P., & Verrocchio, M. C. (2020). The effect of the COVID-19 lockdown on parents: A call to adopt urgent measures. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 12(S1), S79–S81. doi: 10.1037/tra0000672
Galea, S., Merchant, R. M., & Lurie, N. (2020). The Mental Health Consequences of COVID-19 and Physical Distancing: The Need for Prevention and Early Intervention. JAMA Internal Medicine, 180(6), 817. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.1562
Garnov, V. M. (1988). Prevalence of neuropsychiatric disorders in natural disasters. Korsakov Journal of Neuropathology and Psychiatry, (8), 125. (In Russian).
Garnov, V. M. (2002). Formation of psychopathology within the framework of post-traumatic stress disorder in earthquake survivors (Doctoral Thesis). Moscow. (In Russian).
Gorenkov, D. V., Khantimirova, L. M., Shevtsov, V. A., Rukavishnikov, A. V., Merkulov, V. A., & Olefir, Yu. (2020). New infectious disease outbreak COVID-19: β-coronaviruses as a threat to global health. Biodrugs. Prevention, diagnosis, treatment, 20(1), 6–20. doi: 10.30895/2221-996X-2020-20-1-6-20 (In Russian).
Hong, J. (2012). The state of phishing attacks. Communications of the ACM, 55(1), 74–81. doi: 10.1145/2063176.2063197
Horesh, D., & Brown, A. D. (2020). Traumatic stress in the age of COVID-19: A call to close critical gaps and adapt to new realities. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 12(4), 331–335. doi: 10.1037/tra0000592
Interim Guidelines. Prevention, diagnosis and treatment of new coronavirus infection (COVID-19). Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation. (2020). Retrieved from Ministry of Health of Russia website: https://static-0.minzdrav.gov.ru/system/attachments/attaches/000/051/777/original/030902020_COVID-19_v8.pdf (In Russian).
Jagatic, T. N., Johnson, N. A., Jakobsson, M., & Menczer, F. (2007). Social phishing. Communications of the ACM, 50(10), 94–100. doi: 10.1145/1290958.1290968
Kadyrov, R. (2012). Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): State of the Problem, Psychodiagnosis and Psychological Assistance. St. Petersburg: Speech.. (In Russian).
Kanesarajah, V., & White, E. (2020). Chasing change: Innovation and patent activity during COVID-19. A report on the pandemic’s impact on the global R&D community and innovation lifecycle. 18. Retrieved from https://clarivate.com/derwent/wp-content/uploads/sites/3/dlm_uploads/2020/06/DW507408683-COVID-19-Report_FINAL.pdf
Kanzler, K. E., & Ogbeide, S. (2020). Addressing trauma and stress in the COVID-19 pandemic: Challenges and the promise of integrated primary care. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 12(S1), S177–S179. doi: 10.1037/tra0000761
Kilyachkov, A. A., & Chaldaeva, L. A. (2020). Risks of Virtual and Real Space Interaction. 216–222. Moscow: Dashkov & K Publishing and Trading Corporation. (In Russian).
Komarov, A. A. (2013). Internet Fraud: Problems of Determination and Prevention. Moscow: Yurlitinform Publishers. Retrieved from https://www.elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=22800022 (In Russian).
Koushik, N. S. (2020). A population mental health perspective on the impact of COVID-19. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 12(5), 529–530. doi: 10.1037/tra0000737
Krasovsky, A. (2020a). How the First Coronavirus Victims Died in Russia / EPIDEMIA with Anton Krasovsky. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0TC7ksGAuUM (In Russian).
Krasovsky, A. (2020b). Why was the coronavirus in Dagestan a disaster? / Epidemic with Anton Krasovsky. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bJvLW-lYH6I&feature=youtu.be (In Russian).
Lance, J., (2008). Phishing. Techniques of computer crime (Р. V. Gaditsky, Trans.). Moscow: NT Preaa. (In Russian).
Levashov, Ya. (2020). From closed Moscow to Spain. Flight to Carantine [4K]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GaBGTpG40HI (In Russian).
Makovskaya, A. (2020). Anna Makovskaya: Fakes, immunity and coronavirus waves. Retrieved from Ekho Moskvy website: https://echo.msk.ru/blog/mayakov_a/2696293-echo/ (In Russian).
Mazza, C., Ricci, E., Biondi, S., Colasanti, M., Ferracuti, S., Napoli, C., & Roma, P. (2020). A Nationwide Survey of Psychological Distress among Italian People during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Immediate Psychological Responses and Associated Factors. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(9), 3165. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17093165
Members’ Webinar: Cybercrime Trends due to COVID-19. (2020). Retrieved from APWG website: https://apwg.org/members-webinar-cybercrime-trends-due-to-covid-19/
Mikhailov, L. A. (2009). Psychological protection in emergency situations. Moscow: Peter Publishing House. (In Russian).
Mizintseva, M. F. (Ed.). (2020a). The COVID-19 pandemic. Biology and Economics. Special Issue: Information and Analytical Collection. Moscow: VINITI RAS.. (In Russian).
Mizintseva, M. F. (Ed.). (2020b). The COVID-19 pandemic. Chemistry and Economics. Special Issue: Information and Analytical Collection. Moscow: VINITI RAS. (In Russian).
Nazaretyan, A. P. (2005). The Psychology of Spontaneous Mass Behavior: Crowds, Rumors, Political and Advertising Campaigns. Moscow: Academia. (In Russian).
Nicola, M., Alsafi, Z., Sohrabi, C., Kerwan, A., Al-Jabir, A., Iosifidis, C., … Agha, R. (2020). The socio-economic implications of the coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19): A review. International Journal of Surgery, 78, 185–193. doi: 10.1016/j.ijsu.2020.04.018
Nikiforov, V. V., Suranova, T. G., Chernobrovkina, T. Ya., Yankovskaya, Y. D., & Burova, S. V. (2020). New Coronavirus Infection (COVID-19): Clinical and Epidemiological Aspects. Archives of Internal Medicine, 10(2), 87–93. doi: 10.20514/2226-6704-2020-10-2-87-93 (In Russian).
Olshansky, D. V. (2001). The Psychology of the Masses. Saint Petersburg: Peter. (In Russian).
Prokopenko, I. (2020). Coronavirus. The Killer Virus. Moscow: Eksmo.. (In Russian).
Prostoserdov, M. A. (2017). Economic crimes committed in cyberspace. Moscow: Yurlitinform Publishers. (In Russian).
Qiu, J., Shen, B., Zhao, M., Wang, Z., Xie, B., & Xu, Y. (2020). A nationwide survey of psychological distress among Chinese people in the COVID-19 epidemic: Implications and policy recommendations. General Psychiatry, 33(2). doi: 10.1136/gpsych-2020-100213
Roden-Foreman, J. W., Bennett, M. M., Rainey, E. E., Garrett, J. S., Powers, M. B., & Warren, A. M. (2017). Secondary traumatic stress in emergency medicine clinicians. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 46(6), 522–532. doi: 10.1080/16506073.2017.1315612
Samsebeskazal, D. (2020a). Life in Time: What's out there in the backcountry? Warwick Township, New York. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r722I9fyofk (In Russian).
Samsebeskazal, D. (2020b). Life during the epidemic: Actor cured and now sings from the window. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3QJRjSKL9tg (In Russian).
Samsebeskazal, D. (2020c). Life during an epidemic: Brighton is the only neighborhood where masks and sanitizers are on sale. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ghlST54nmkA (In Russian).
Samsebeskazal, D. (2020d). Life During the Epidemic: The Upper West Side. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S6Di_DgT08I (In Russian).
Samsebeskazal, D. (2020e). Life during an epidemic: An abandoned airfield, Avenue U, and a hospital that doesn't clap. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AwZ22OkH9_Q (In Russian).
Samsebeskazal, D. (2020f). Life during an epidemic: The number of deaths is steadily increasing. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hBzDGVFWxwk (In Russian).
Samsebeskazal, D. (2020g). Life during an epidemic: Has the peak been passed? Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_cdDq8DXM5E (In Russian).
Samsebeskazal, D. (2020h). Life during the epidemic: Self-isolation is over. Are we in for a second wave? Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xVPXrtwxCs8 (In Russian).
Samsebeskazal, D. (2020i). Life During the Epidemic: What's Up in Harlem. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hp_pyHGqRJY (In Russian).
Semke, V. Y., Pogosov, I. A., & Pogosov, A. V. (2003). Panic Disorders: Clinic, Risk Factors, and Treatment. Tomsk: National Research Tomsk State University. (In Russian).
Shiina, A., Niitsu, T., Kobori, O., Idemoto, K., Hashimoto, T., Sasaki, T., … Iyo, M. (2020). Perception of and anxiety about COVID-19 infection and risk behaviors for spreading infection: An international comparison. BioRxiv, 2020.07.30.228643. doi: 10.1101/2020.07.30.228643
Shultz, V. L., Kulba, V. V., Chernov, I. V., & Shelkov, A. B. (2019). Methods and technologies for managing social stability based on a scenario approach. Proceedings of the XIII All-Russian Meeting on Management Problems VSPU-2019, 2034-2039. Moscow: Trapeznikov Institute of Control Problems of the Russian Academy of Sciences. V.A. Trapeznikov RAS. doi: 10.25728/vspu.2019.2034 (In Russian).
Smart Beauty. (2020). Coronavirus in Italy. Lombardy. Chronicles. Retrieved from. https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLTuj_TXHUZX7TZW0sHvbs6YFuDuFLDDr9 (In Russian).
Smirnova, I. G. (2016). Cybercrime: Criminological, Criminal Law, Criminal Procedure and Criminal Analysis. Moscow: Yurlitinform Publishers. (In Russian).
Timm, C., & Perez, R. (2010). Chapter 3—Phishing Attacks. In C. Timm & R. Perez (Eds.), Seven Deadliest Social Network Attacks (pp. 43–61). Boston: Syngress. doi: 10.1016/B978-1-59749-545-5.00003-3
Vasilyeva, A. (2020). Physicians Alliance [Video content about the activities of the medical community during the pandemic]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/c/%D0%90%D0%BB%D1%8C%D1%8F%D0%BD%D1%81%D0%92%D1%80%D0%B0%D1%87%D0%B5%D0%B9 (In Russian).
Vikhryan, A. P. (2016). The Internet as a factor in the radicalization of young people's consciousness. 117–122. St. Petersburg: St. Petersburg State Institute of Technology (Technical University). (In Russian).
Vikhryan, A. P., Sinitsyn, I. M., & Tiunov, S. V. (2018). Health of the Nation as a Factor in Information and Psychological Security of Russian Society. 27–53. Moscow: Peoples' Friendship University of Russia (PFUR). (In Russian).
Voloshin, V. M. (2005). Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Phenomenology, Clinic, Systematics, Dynamics, and Current Approaches to Psychopharmacotherapy. Moscow: Anaharsis. (In Russian).
Watkins, L. E., Sprang, K. R., & Rothbaum, B. O. (2018). Treating PTSD: A Review of Evidence-Based Psychotherapy Interventions. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 12. doi: 10.3389/fnbeh.2018.00258
Wheaton, M. G., Abramowitz, J. S., Berman, N. C., Fabricant, L. E., & Olatunji, B. O. (2012). Psychological Predictors of Anxiety in Response to the H1N1 (Swine Flu) Pandemic. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 36(3), 210–218. doi: 10.1007/s10608-011-9353-3
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.