The research paper focuses on the specific features of the status of theology in the modern humanities in Russia. Studying the complexities and difficulties of the institutionalisation of theology and its localisation in the Russian university system and academic culture, the author foregrounds the post-Soviet European experience of the Baltic countries and Ukraine, where theology acquired the status of a “normal” science earlier than in Russia. Within the framework of this study, the peculiarities of the controversial status of theology in the system of higher education as well as in the Russian postgraduate and doctoral studies are considered in the contexts of the frontier of knowledge and the post-Soviet stereotypes. It is assumed that several factors, including the Soviet atheistic cultural heritage, the post-Soviet system of secular degrees and the traditionally significant role of representatives of the natural sciences in the academic community, may significantly contribute to slowing down the transformation of theology into a “normal” science. The paper also deals with the issue of how theology is transforming from the church life of the Russian Christians and becoming more noticeable in the Russian educational cultures and academic spaces. The arguments of the supporters and opponents of the official institutionalisation of theology in the higher education system are critically examined. The author pays special attention to the prospects and possibilities of using the Western experience of “secularization” of theology and its integration into the secular canons of science.
Antonov, K. (2012, September 13). Theology as an academic specialty. Retrieved from Scholasticist website: http://www.scholast.ru/theology-as-a-science/ (In Russian).
Barth, K. (1963). Evangelical Theology: An Introduction. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.
Barybina, Y. (2020, September 16). Priest Mikhail Yurov on the dangers of theology. Retrieved from Archangelsk Diocese website: http://www.arh-eparhia.ru/publications/88923 (In Russian).
Bekshaev, I. (2018). Is Theology a Science or a New "Marxism-Leninism"? Retrieved from Regnum website: https://regnum.ru/news/society/2371226.html (In Russian).
Biezais, H. (1943). Kristiānisms laikmetu maiņā [Christianity in changing times]. Rīga: A. Gulbisю. (In Latvian).
Biezais, H. (1953). Kristiānisms, nacionālisms, humanisms [Christianity, nationalism, humanism]. Stokholma: Imanta. (In Latvian).
Bokov, G. (2013). The Specificity of Secular Theology and the Problems of Christian Self-Determination in the Contemporary World. Vestnik of St. Petersburg State University. Series 17, (1), 108–112. (In Russian).
Elbakian, E. (2015, October 17). Again on theology. Retrieved from Scholast website: http://www.scholast.ru/more-about-theology/ (In Russian).
Feldmanis, R. (1935). Apvienošanās iespējas mūsdienu protestantismā [Possibilities of Unification in Contemporary Protestantism]. Rīga: Latvijas Universitāte. (In Latvian).
Gaginsky, A. (2019). To be or not to be? The Idea of God in Philosophical Theology. Issues of Theology, (1), 41–55. doi: 10.21638/spbu28.2019.104 (In Russian).
Gaidamavičius-Gaida, P. (1974). Krikščionis tarp kolektyvizmo ir individualizmo [The Christian between collectivism and individualism]. Roma: Lietuvių katalikų mokslo akademija. (In Lithuanian).
Glickman, E. (2017, June 5). God's Pokémon in the Temple of Science. The first defense of a theology dissertation in Russia took place. Including one from biologists and journalists. Retrieved from Novaya Gazeta website: https://novayagazeta.ru/articles/2017/06/03/72686-bozhi-pokemony-v-hrame-nauki?utm_source=push (In Russian).
Golubev, A., Sergeev, A., & Drozdova, D. (2017, March 31). 'Theology shapes critical knowledge': Russian scholars argue about theology. Retrieved from Scholast website: http://www.scholast.ru/more-about-theology/ (In Russian).
Hägglund, B. (1997). Trons monster. En handledning i dogmatik [Tron’s monster. A Guide to Dogmatics]. Arcus. (In Swedish).
Hägglund, B. (2003). Teologins historia: En dogmhistorisk översikt [The history of theology: An overview of the history of dogma]. Arcus. (In Swedish).
Hägglund, B. (2011). Kunskapsteori och metafysik i teologin – en idéhistorisk tillbakablick [Theory of knowledge and metaphysics in theology—A historical review of ideas]. Arcus (In Swedish).
Hilarion, Metropolitan V. (2011a, October 6). Theology and the Secular Sciences. Retrieved from Scholast website: http://www.scholast.ru/theology-and-secular-sciences/ (In Russian).
Hilarion, Metropolitan V. (2011b, October 6). The Ecclesiastical and the Secular in Humanities Science. Retrieved from Scholast website: http://www.scholast.ru/church-and-secular-in-the-humanities/ (In Russian).
Hilarion, Metropolitan V. (2017a, March 29). Theology is the scientific grounding of the religious worldview. Retrieved from Scholast website: http://www.scholast.ru/alfeev-theology/ (In Russian).
Hilarion, Metropolitan V. (2017b, June 14). Theology in Modern Russia: Formation of the Branch. Retrieved from Patriarchy.ru. Official website of the Moscow Patriarchate. website: http://www.patriarchia.ru/db/text/4934526.html (In Russian).
Hilarion, Metropolitan V. (2019a). Theology in Modern Russia. Toward the publication of a new journal. Issues in Theology, 1(1), 3–8. doi: 10.21638/spbu28.2019.101 (In Russian).
Hilarion, Metropolitan V. (2019b, May 22). Theology and Theological Education: Perspectives for Development. Retrieved from Patriarchy.ru. Official website of the Moscow Patriarchate. website: http://www.patriarchia.ru/db/text/5438957.html (In Russian).
Hondzinski, P. (2017, September 5). Our overriding idea is to restore the rights of theological science. Retrieved from Tatiana Day. MSU Online Journal. website: https://taday.ru/text/2211884.html (In Russian).
Kosovan, A. (2017, March 3). "There are things that can only be explained by theology". The story of a priest who is defending Russia's first theology dissertation. Retrieved from Snob website: https://snob.ru/selected/entry/121424/ (In Russian).
Kotlyar, P. (2015). Instead of coming from three grandmothers, the priests will go to RGSU". What is the threat of the VAK's introduction of the specialty of "theology". Retrieved from Gazeta.ru website: https://www.gazeta.ru/science/2015/10/13_a_7816751.shtml (In Russian).
Kulikova, A. (2020, October 25). Religious scholar names difficulties associated with teaching theology at MEPhI. Retrieved from Vzglyad. Delovaya Gazeta. website: https://vz.ru/news/2020/10/25/1067196.html (In Russian).
Kundziņš, K. (1931). Kristus: Personība, dzīve un mācība [Christ: Personality, life and teaching]. Rīga: A. Raņķa grāmatu tirgotavas apgādībā. (In Latvian).
Küng, G. (2000). The Great Christian Thinkers. St. Petersburg: Aletheia. (In Russian).
Küng, H. (1984). Paradigmenwechsel in der Theologie: Versuch einer Grundlagenerklärung [Paradigm Shift in Theology: An Attempt at a Basic Explanation]. In H. Küng & D. Tracy, Theologie – wohin? Auf dem Weg zu einem neuen Paradigma [Theology—Where to? On the way to a new paradigm] (pp. 37–75). Zürich: Guetersloher Verlagshaus. [In German].
Küng, H. (1985). Theologie auf dem Weg zu einem neuen Paradigma [Theology on the way to a new paradigm]. In J. R. Hauer, Entwürfe der Theologie [Drafts of theology] (pp. 181–207). Graz: Styria. (In German).
Küng, H. (1994). Große christliche Denker [Great Christian thinkers]. München: Piper. (In German).
Levin, V. (2017, August 15). Where We're Going. Retrieved from Troitsky variant website: https://trv-science.ru/2017/08/kuda-my-idem/ (In Russian).
Lubac, H. de. (1999). Le drame de l’humanisme athée [The drama of atheistic humanism]. Paris: Cerf. (In French).
Lubac, H. de. (2003). Catholicisme. Les aspects sociaux du dogme [Catholicism. The social aspects of the dogma]. Paris: Cerf. (In French).
Lubac, H. de. (2013). Esprit et liberté dans la tradition théologique. Suivi de Petite catéchèse sur nature et grâce [Spirit and freedom in the theological tradition. Followed by Small catechesis on nature and grace]. Paris: Cerf. (In French).
Lyutykh, S. (2017, July 21). "It is something of a self-reflection of the Church." First Candidate in Theology on why the discipline is worthy of being called a science. Retrieved from Lenta.ru website: https://lenta.ru/articles/2017/07/21/teologia/ (In Russian).
Maceina, A. (1970). Bažnyčia ir pasaulis [The Church and the world]. Čikaga: “Krikščionis gyvenime” knygų serijos. (In Lithuanian).
Maceina, A. (1971). Didieji dabarties klausimai [The big questions of our time]. Čikaga: “Krikščionis gyvenime” knygų serijos. (In Lithuanian).
Makeeva, A., Korobov, P., & Labutina, D. (2016, August 11). Theology has been elevated to an academic degree. Theology is officially recognized as a science in Russia. Retrieved from Kommersant website: https://www.kommersant.ru/doc/3060218 (In Russian).
Maldonis, V. (1939). Evanģeliskā dogmātika [Evangelical dogmatics]. Rīgā: Latvijas Universitāte. (In Latvian).
Malimonova, S. (2015). Christian Tradition and Modernism: Approaches to Understanding the Problem. Bulletin of V.N. Tatishchev Volga University, (4), 220–230. (In Russian).
Muravyev, A. (2013, October 10). Theology in medical schools: Why it won't work. Retrieved from Polit.ru website: https://polit.ru/article/2013/10/10/teologiya_med/ (In Russian).
Muravyov, A. (2017, November 21). Theology has no place in higher education, but there is no need to throw stones at it,. Retrieved from Troitsky variant website: https://trv-science.ru/2017/11/aleksei-muravyov-teology/ (In Russian).
Niebuhr, R. (1930). Leaves from the Notebook of a Tamed Cynic. NY: Richard R. Smith.
Niebuhr, R. (1932). Moral Man and Immoral Society: A Study of Ethics and Politics. NY: Charles Scribner’s Sons.
Niebuhr, R. (1935). Interpretation of Christian Ethics. NY: Harper and Brothers.
Niebuhr, R. (1956). The Purpose of the Church and Its Ministry. NY: Harper.
Niebuhr, R. (1958). Christ and Culture. NY: Harper Collins.
Niebuhr, R. (1988). The Kingdom of God in America. Middletown: Wesleyan University Press.
Niebuhr, R. (1993). Radical Monotheism and Western Culture: With Supplementary Essays. Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press.
Panchin, A. (2017a, March 8). Five crosses to the grave of theology: Alexander Panchin on why it cannot be considered science. Alexander Panchin's response to theses in defense of theology. Retrieved from The Indicator website: https://indicator.ru/humanitarian-science/tezisy-protiv-teologii-panchin.htm (In Russian).
Panchin, A. (2017b, September 6). Theology is not science, but religion under the guise of science. Retrieved from Tatiana Day. MSU Online Journal. website: https://taday.ru/text/2212000.html (In Russian).
Panchin, Y., Kravetsky, A., & Korolkov, A. (2017, May 26). First Dissertation in Theology: Who and Why Criticizes? And who criticizes the science taught by the best universities in the world. Retrieved from Pravmir website: https://www.pravmir.ru/pochemu-kritika-dissertatsii-po-teologii-1/ (In Russian).
Shchipkov, A. (2019, April 10). The Future of Theology: Why Russia Needs to Develop its School. How Russians can avoid becoming submissive consumers of other people's ideas. Retrieved from Nezavisimaya Gazeta website: https://www.ng.ru/kartblansh/2019-04-10/3_7553_kartblansh.html (In Russian).
Shevtsov, N. (2020, September 4). Why theology is not science. Retrieved from Popular Mechanics website: https://www.popmech.ru/editorial/616363-pochemu-teologiya-ne-nauka/ (In Russian).
Shmaina-Velikanova, A., Borisov, M., & Demina, N. (2017, December 19). "Theology can be taught but should not be implemented." Retrieved from Troitsky variant. website: https://trv-science.ru/2017/12/teologiyu-mozhno-prepodavat-no-ne-sleduet-vnedryat/ (In Russian).
Shmonin, D. (2019). Scientific rationality and the "return to theology". Issues in Theology, (3), 280–306. doi: 10.21638/spbu28.2019.301 (In Russian).
Snisarenko, Y. (2020). Theology in the International Scientific and Educational Space. Issues in Theology, 2(1), 118–136. doi: 10.21638/spbu28.2020.108 (In Russian).
Tillich, P. (1951). Systematic Theology (Vol. 1). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Tillich, P. (1957). Systematic Theology (Vol. 2). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Tillich, P. (1963). Systematic Theology (Vol. 3). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Tyurenkov, M. (2016, February 8). Theology: Intruder or ancestor of the sciences? Retrieved from Tsargrad website: https://tsargrad.tv/articles/teologija-nezvanaja-gostja-ili-rodonachalnica-nauk_4359 (In Russian).
Tyurenkov, M. (2018, November 2). Archpriest Dimitriy Leskin: "Theology is steadily entering the educational space of Russia." Retrieved from Tsargrad website: https://tsargrad.tv/articles/protoierej-dimitrij-leskin-teologija-uverenno-vhodit-v-obrazovatelnoe-prostranstvo-rossii_167077 (In Russian).
Uglanov, F. (2017, July 30). Protopriest's degree revoked. Scholars appeal the awarding of the first degree in theology. Retrieved from Gazeta.ru website: https://www.gazeta.ru/science/2017/07/30_a_10811336.shtml (In Russian).
Uzlaner, D. (2017a, March 7). Ten theses in defense of theology as a scientific discipline. On the God hypothesis, pseudoscience, and the rational approach to religion. Retrieved from The Indicator. website: https://indicator.ru/humanitarian-science/teologiya-kak-nauka.htm (In Russian).
Uzlaner, D. (2017b, March 9). A call for complexity in an age of simplicity: New arguments for theology. Retrieved from The Indicator. website: https://indicator.ru/humanitarian-science/teologiya-bog-religiya-gumanitarnye.htm (In Russian).
Uzlaner, D. (2017c, March 16). Academic theology can be confessional, extra-confessional, non-religious, and even atheistic. Retrieved from Scholast website: http://www.scholast.ru/akademicheskaja-teologija-mozhet-byt-vnekonfessionalnoj/ (In Russian).
Vasilyeva, O. (2019, August 8). The first scientist-theologian in the Russian Federation received a PhD degree. The head of the Russian Ministry of Education and Science, Vasilyeva, read the thesis of the archpriest and considered it good. Retrieved from Interfax website: https://www.interfax.ru/russia/573909 (In Russian).
Wise, R. (2017). Recognize theology as pseudoscience. Retrieved from. Change.org website: https://www.change.org/p/ (In Russian).
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.