Global Conflict of the Past in Contemporary Media Space: Historical Memory in a Discursive Perspective
pdf (Русский)


Historical Memory Cultural Memory Conflict World War I World War II Discourse Historical Discourse Discourse Of Memory

How to Cite

Aleshina, E., Blokh, M., Razuvaeva, T., Wagner, H., & Kompleev, A. (2021). Global Conflict of the Past in Contemporary Media Space: Historical Memory in a Discursive Perspective. Galactica Media: Journal of Media Studies, 3(4), 17-50.


The article is devoted to an overview of studies on the discursive embodiment of historical memory, particularly, in the media. The research is aimed at the overview and systematization of, predominantly, international and Russian concepts of historical memory in academic literature. The scientific significance of research results is determined by the possibility of clarifying the definitions of historical memory in the process of systematizing the existing overseas and domestic studies. With that, the “starting point” of historical memory in this research are global political conflicts, particularly, World War I and World War II. The focus of research interest is the memory of the world wars which is discursively expressed in modern media space with various pragmatic tasks. Analysis of media materials allows for revealing the mechanisms of using historical memory as a tool for creating assessment and images while covering World War I and World War II. The research makes it possible to obtain a general discursive picture of the mass consciousness and, what is especially, important, to get specific data on the linguistic “content” of historical memory reflected in online media. The article is addressed to researchers in various fields of the Humanities, journalists and a wide circle of readers who are interested in the problem.
pdf (Русский)


Aleshina, E. Yu. (2021). The Fall of the Berlin Wall (November 9, 1989) in Contemporary Media: A Discourse of Memory. Language as the basis of modern intercultural interaction: Proceedings of the VII International Scientific and Practical Conference November 30 – December 3, 2020, 211–218. Penza: Penza State Technical University. (In Russian).

Anikin, D. A., Bubnov, A. Yu., & Kompleyev, A. V. (2020). The Russian Historical Society as an Actor in Symbolic Politics: Institutional Features and Memorial Risks. Proceedings of Higher Educational Institutions. Volga Region. Humanities, (1), 114–124. (In Russian).

Artamonov, D. S., & Tikhonova, S. V. (2020). History Garage: The Digital Twist of “Independent Historical Research”. Dialogue with Time, (72), 237–254. (In Russian).

Artamonov, D. S., Medvedeva, E. N., Tikhonova, S. V., & Volovikova, M. L. (2021). Holy Selfie as the Channel of Media Memory in the Digital World. Galactica Media: Journal of Media Studies, 3(2), 14–27. doi: 10.46539/gmd.v3i2.150

Artamonov, D., Volovikova, M., & Tikhonova, S. (2019). Media memory in the digital world. SHS Web of Conferences, 72, 01014. doi: 10.1051/shsconf/20197201014

Assman, A. (2014). The Long Shadow of the Past: Memorial Culture and Historical Politics. Moscow: Novoye Literaturnoye Obozreniye. (In Russian).

Assman, J. (2004). Cultural Memory. Writing, Memory of the Past, and Political Identity in the High Cultures of Antiquity. Moscow: Languages of Slavic Culture. (In Russian).

Assmann, A. (2002). Gedächtnis als Leitbegriff der Kulturwissenschaften [Memory as a guiding concept in cultural studies]. In L. Musner & G. Wunberg (Eds.), Kulturwissenschaften: Forschung – Praxis – Positionen [Cultural Studies: Research—Practice—Positions] (pp. 27–45). Vienna: WUV. (In German).

Assmann, A. (2006). Der lange Schatten der Vergangenheit [The long shadow of the past]. München: C.H. Beck. (In German).

Assmann, A., & Assmann, J. (1983). Schrift und Gedächtnis [Writing and Memory]. In A. Assmann, J. Assmann, & C. Hartmeier (Eds.), Schrift und Gedächtnis. Archäologie der literarischen Kommunikation I [Writing and Memory. Archaeology of Literary Communication I] (pp. 265–284). München: Fink. (In German).

Assmann, A., & Assmann, J. (1988). Schrift, Tradition und Kultur [Writing, tradition and culture]. In W. Raible (Ed.), Zwischen Festtag und Alltag. Zehn Beiträge zum Thema ›Mündlichkeit und Schriftlichkeit‹ [Between Feast Day and Everyday Life. Ten contributions on the theme of ’orality and writtenness’] (pp. 25–30). Tübingen: Narr. (In German).

Assmann, A., & Assmann, J. (1994). Das Gestern im Heute. Medien und soziales Gedächtnis [Yesterday in Today. Media and Social Memory]. In M. K. Schmidt, J. Siegfried, & S. Weischenberg (Eds.), Die Wirklichkeit der Medien [The reality of the media]. Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag (In German).

Assmann, J. (1988). Kollektives Gedächtnis und kulturelle Identität [Collective memory and cultural identity]. In J Assmann & T. Hölscher (Eds.), Kultur und Gedächtnis [Culture and memory] (pp. 9–19). Frankfurt/M: Suhrkamp. (In German).

Assmann, Jan. (1992). Das kulturelle gedächtnis: Schrift, erinnerung und politische identität in frühen hochkulturen [Cultural memory: writing, memory and political identity in early civilizations]. München: CH Beck. (In German).

Barabanov, O. (2020). The image of war in the historical memory. Retrieved from Rossiyskaya Gazeta website: (In Russian).

Bloch, M. Y. (2013). Discourse and Systemic Linguistics. Language. Culture. Speech Communication, (1), 5–11. (In Russian).

Davydov, I. P. (2015). The Archetype of Collective Memory (Review of the book: Assmann Aleida. The Long Shadow of the Past: Memorial Culture and Historical Politics). Bulletin of A.S. Pushkin Leningrad State University, 2(2), 377–387. (In Russian).

De Cesari, Ch., & Rigney, A. (Eds.). (2014). Transnational memory: Circulation, articulation, scales (Vol. 19). Berlin: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG.

Erll, A. (2004). Medium des kollektiven Gedächtnisses: Ein (erinnerungs-) kulturwissenschaftlicher Kompaktbegriff [Medium of Collective Memory: A Compact Concept in Cultural Studies (of Memory)]. In A. Erll & A. Nünning, Medien des kollektiven Gedächtnisses. Konstruktivität – Historizität – Kulturspezifität [Media of collective memory. Constructivity—Historicity—Culture Specificity] (pp. 3–22). Berlin: de Gruyter. (In German).

Erll, A. (2006). Medien des kollektiven Gedächtnisses [Media of collective memory]. Hagen: BA-Studienkurs der Fernuni Hagen. (In German).

Erll, A. (2008). Kollektives Gedächtnis und Erinnerungskulturen [Collective memory and memory cultures]. In A. Nünning & V. Nünning (Eds.), Einführung in die Kulturwissenschaften. Theoretische Grundlagen – Ansätze – Perspektiven [Introduction to Cultural Studies. Theoretical Foundations—Approaches—Perspectives] (pp. 156–185). Berlin-Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag. (In German).

Erll, A. (2017). Kollektives Gedächtnis und Erinnerungskulturen [Collective memory and memory cultures ]. Stuttgart: Springer-Verlag GmbH Deutschland, J.B. Metzler. (In German).

Esposito, E. (2013). Die Formen des Web-Gedächtnisses. Medien und soziales Gedächtnis [The forms of web memory. Media and social memory]. In R. Lehmann, F. Öchsner, & G. Sebald, Formen und Funktionen sozialer Gedächtnisse [Forms and functions of social memories] (pp. 91–103). Wiesbaden: Springer VS. (In German).

Fedorova, M. M. (2018). History/Memory: A “difficult” dilemma. History of Philosophy, 23(1), 108–121. (In Russian).

Foret, F., & Calligaro, O. (Eds.). (2012). Conclusion: Resilience and elusiveness of European values. In “European values”. Challenges and opportunities for EU governance (pp. 174–180). London: Routledge.

Freeman, L. A., Nienass, B., & Daniell, R. (2014). Silence, Screen, and Spectacle: Rethinking Social Memory in the Age of Information. New York: Berghahn Books.

Fursov, K. K. (2020). Modern Media on the Events of World War II: A Structural Analysis of the Discourse of Enmity. Scientific journal “Discourse-PI”, 3(40). doi: 10.24411/1817-9568-2020-10305 (In Russian).

Garde-Hansen, J. (2011). Media and Memory. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

Garde-Hansen, J., Hoskins, A., & Reading, A. (2009). Save As... Digital Memories. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Giesen, B. (2004). Triumph and Trauma. Boulder: Paradigm publishers.

Glebova, I. I., Bolshakova, O. V., & Minz, M. M. (2013). Russia in World War I: New Directions for Research. Moscow: INION RAS.. (In Russian).

Grosz, E. A. (1999). Becomings: Explorations in Time, Memory, and Futures. Ithaca/NY: Cornell University Press.

Halbwachs, M. (1950). La Mémoire collective [The Collective Memory]. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France. (In French).

Halbwachs, M. (1966). Das Gedächtnis und seine sozialen Bedingungen [Memory and its social conditions]. Berlin: Luchterhand. (In German).

Hein, D. (2009). Erinnerungskulturen online. Angebote, Kommunikatoren und Nutzer von Websites zu Nationalsozialismus und Holocaust [Cultures of remembrance online. Offers, Communicators and Users of Websites on National Socialism and the Holocaust]. Konstanz: UVK. (In German).

Hepp, A. (2011). Medienkultur. Die Kultur mediatisierter Welten [Media Culture. The Culture of Mediatized Worlds]. Wiesbaden: VS. (In German).

Horton, A., & Usero, A. (2020, May 8). Defense Secretary Esper stood beside World War II veterans—Without a mask. Washington Post. Retrieved from

Huyssen, A. (1995). Twilight Memories: Marking Time in a Culture of Amnesia. New York: Routledge.

Ißler, R. A. (2017). Kulturelles Gedächtnis [Cultural memory]. In L. Kühnhardt & T. Mayer (Eds.), Bonner Enzyklopädie der Globalität [Bonn Encyclopedia of Globality] (pp. 902–922). Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH. (In German).

Ivanov, A. G., Tikhonova, S. V., Linchenko, A. A., & Polyakova, I. P. (2020). Myths about the Past in the Modern Media Environment: Practices of Construction, Mechanisms of Influence, and Prospects for Use. St. Petersburg: Aletheia. (In Russian).

Jacke, Ch., & Zierold, M. (2015). Gedächtnis und Erinnerung [Memory and recollection]. In A. Hepp (Ed.), Handbuch Cultural Studies und Medienanalyse [Handbook Cultural Studies and Media Analysis] (pp. 79–89). Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien. (In German).

Kammen, M. (1995). Contested Values: Democracy and Diversity in American Culture. St. Martin’s Press, Inc.

Kampmann, D. (2020). Holocaust-Überlebende: Der Hölle entkommen [Holocaust survivors: Escaping Hell]. FAZ.NET. Retrieved from (In German)

Keightley, E., & Reading, A. (2014). Mediated mobilities. Media, Culture & Society, 36(3), 285–301. doi: 10.1177/0163443713517731

Kocka, J., & Nolte, P. (2000). Historische Sozialwissenschaft heute [Historical social science today]. In Perspektiven der Gesellschaftsgeschichte [Perspectives of social history] (pp. 5–24). München: C.H. Beck. (In German).

Korotetskaya, L. V. (2018). Social Memory: A Sociological Analysis of the Discourse of the Past in German Self-Consciousness (Dissertation). Moscow State Institute of International Relations, Moscow. (In Russian).

Kozlov, V. P. (2006). The Last War of the Russian Empire: Russia, the World on the Eve, During, and After the First World War According to Documents from Russian and Foreign Archives: Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference, September 7-8, 2004. Moscow: Nauka. (In Russian).

Le, E., Radut-Gaghi, L., Silletti, A. M., & Wagner, H. (2022). Media Discourse of Commemoration. The Centenary of World War One in Europe. Palgrave Macmillan.

Lotman, Y. M. (1992). Memory in Cultural Illumination. Selected articlesи (Vol. 1). Tallinn. (In Russian).

Manoilo, A. V. (2013). Political Conflicts in International Relations and World Politics. Peace and politics, (2), 71–82. (In Russian).

Mayer-Schönberger, V. (2010). Die Tugend des Vergessens in digitalen Zeiten: Delete [The virtue of forgetting in digital times: Delete]. Berlin: Berlin University Press. (In German).

Medinsky, V. (2018). В In stone, in bronze, in living memory. Retrieved from Rossiyskaya Gazeta website: (In Russian).

Murray, J., & Marsh, S. (2020, May 8). VE Day 2020: ‘Never despair’ - Queen addresses nation on 75th anniversary — as it happened. The Guardian. Retrieved from

Nora, P. (1999). France-memory. St. Petersburg: St. Petersburg University Press. (In Russian).

Pethes, N., & Ruchatz, J. (2001). Gedächtnis und Erinnerung: Ein interdisziplinäres Lexikon [Memory and recollection: An interdisciplinary lexicon]. Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt Taschenbuch. (In German).

Quiros, A. L., & Strasburg, J. (2020). Americans fighting for two victories in World War II only got one. Washington Post. Retrieved from

Radonić, L., & Uhl, H. (2016). Gedächtnis im 21. Jahrhundert. Zur Neuverhandlung eines kulturwissenschaftlichen Leitbegriffs [Memory in the 21st Century. On the Renegotiation of a Guiding Concept in Cultural Studies]. Bielefeld: Verlag. (In German).

Reading, A. (2014). Seeing red: A political economy of digital memory. Media, Culture & Society, 36(6), 748–760. doi: 10.1177/0163443714532980

Reading, A. (2016). Gender and memory in the globital age. Springer.

Ricoeur, P. (2004). Memory, History, Oblivion. Moscow: Publisher of Humanitarian Literature. (In Russian).

Rigney, A. (2014). Ongoing: Changing Memory and the European Project. In Ch. De Cesari & A. Rigney (Eds.), Transnational Memory. Circulation, Articulation, Scales (pp. 339–359). Berlin/Boston: de Gruyter.

Ruane, M. E. (2020). The devastation of World War II in Europe ended 75 years ago. Washington Post. Retrieved from

Rüsen, J., & Jaeger, F. (2001). Erinnerungskultur [Remembrance culture]. In K.-R. Korte & W. Weidenfeld (Eds.), Deutschland-TrendBuch. Fakten und Orientierungen [Germany-TrendBook. Facts and Orientations] (pp. 397–428). Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH. (In German).

Sabancheev, R. Yu. (2018). Pierre Nora's concept of "places of memory" as a mode of historical reconstruction. Humanitarian Studies in Eastern Siberia and the Far East, (1), 33–38. (In Russian).

Sangar, E. (2015). From “memory wars” to shared identities: Conceptualizing the transnationalisation of collective memory. The Tocqueville Review, 36(2), 65–93.

Sebald, G. (2018). (Digitale) Medien und Gedächtnis – aus der Perspektive einer Gedächtnissoziologie [(Digital) Media and Memory—From the Perspective of a Sociology of Memory]. In G. Sebald & M.-K. Döbler (Eds.), (Digitale) Medien und soziale Gedächtnisse [(Digital) media and social memories] (pp. 29–51). Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH. (In German).

Sommer, V. (2018). Mediatisierte Erinnerungen. Medienwissenschaftliche Perspektiven für eine Theoretisierung digitaler Erinnerungsprozesse [Mediatized Memories. Media Studies Perspectives for a Theorization of Digital Memory Processes]. In G. Sebald & M.-K. Döbler (Eds.), (Digitale) Medien und soziale Gedächtnisse [(Digital) media and social memories] (pp. 53–79). Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH. (In German).

Sondergeld, B. (2010). Spanische Erinnerungskultur. Die Assmann’sche Theorie des kulturellen Gedächtnisses und der Bürgerkrieg 1936-1939 [Spanish Memory Culture. Assmann’s Theory of Cultural Memory and the Civil War 1936-1939.]. Wiesbaden: GWV Fachverlage GmbH. (In German).

Van Dijck, J. (2007). Mediated memories in the digital age. Stanford/Ca.: Stanford University Press.

Van Dijck, J. (2013). The culture of connectivity: A critical history of social media. Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press.

Vasiliev, A. (2009). Abi Warburg's Theory of Social Memory. Between the philosophy of culture and the history of art. Art History, (1–2), 16–39. (In Russian).

Vasiliev, A. G. (2014). Incarnate Memory: Commemorative Ritual in the Sociology of Durkheim. Sociological Review, 13(2), 141–167. (In Russian).

Wagner, H., & Aleshina, E. Yu. (2019). Reflections of Europe's Past in Online Media. Penza; Flensburg; Cergy-Pontoise: Penza State University. (In Russian).

Yurievich, B. A., & Vyacheslavovich, K. A. (2020). The Russian-German “war of memory”: An Analysis of Contemporary Online Discussion of the Great Patriotic War. Science. Society. Defence, 8(2). doi: 10.24411/2311-1763-2020-10233 (In Russian).

Zierold, M. (2006). Gesellschaftliche Erinnerung. Eine medienkulturwissenschaftliche Perspektive [Social memory. A Media Cultural Studies Perspective]. Berlin: de Gruyter. (In German).

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.