Russia and Other Significant Others in Latvian Caricatures
pdf

Abstract views: 156
PDF Downloads: 83

Keywords

natinal identity
cartoons
caricature
Latvia
Russia
European Union
Other
stereotypes
mental border
constructivism

How to Cite

Zhirnova, L. (2021). Russia and Other Significant Others in Latvian Caricatures. Galactica Media: Journal of Media Studies, 3(3), 199-212. https://doi.org/10.46539/gmd.v3i3.196

Abstract

After the collapse of the Soviet Union Latvia faced the need to redefine its national identity in a new international environment. Its elite took a clear Euro-Atlantic course, and the image of Latvia in the public space has been largely defined in contrast to the image of Russia ever since. One of the ways to understand how Latvia sees itself and Russia is analyzing political cartoons. The purpose of the study is to bring out the attributes of Russia as a significant Other in caricatures in national newspapers and analyze how they correspond to the characteristics of Latvia, thus defining the outlines of the mental border between the two. The analysis shows two main sets of ideas associated with Russia in Latvian cartoons: one is power, threat and aggression, and the other is propaganda and lies. Although the genre of caricature is meant to be disrespectful, the comparison with cartoons featuring the EU shows that the cartoonists are much more hostile towards Russia. Latvia has succeeded in distancing itself from Russia mentally and uses its image as an antagonist Other, however the cartoons show lack of national pride and doubt that the country has become a rightful member of the Western world.

https://doi.org/10.46539/gmd.v3i3.196
pdf

References

Abizadeh, A. (2005). Does Collective Identity Presuppose an Other? On the Alleged Incoherence of Global Solidarity. American Political Science Review, 99(1), 45–60. doi: 10.1017/S0003055405051488

Alkazemi, M. F., & Wanta, W. (2015). Kuwaiti political cartoons during the Arab Spring: Agenda setting and self-censorship. Journalism, 16(5), 630–653. doi: 10.1177/1464884914533072

Baratay, E. (2003). Le zoo, lieu politique, XVIe–XXe siècles [The Zoo, the Political Niveau, 19-20th centuries]. In P. Bacot (Ed.), L’animal en politique [The animal in politics] (pp. 15–36). Paris: L’Harmattan.

Berger, P. L., & Luckmann, T. (1966). The Social Construction of Reality. A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge. London: Penguin Books.

Carter, M. J., & Fuller, C. (2016). Symbols, meaning, and action: The past, present, and future of symbolic interactionism. Current Sociology, 64(6), 931–961. doi: 10.1177/0011392116638396

Demski, D., & Baraniecka-Olszewska, K. (Eds.). (2010). Images of the Other in Ethnic Caricatures of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw: Institute of Archaeology and Ethnology, Polish Academy of Sciences.

Diena. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.diena.lv//

Dienas Bizness. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.db.lv/

Dugalich, N. M. (2020). Universal and Culturally Specific Features and Linguistic Peculiarities of the Political Cartoon in the Arabic and French Languages. RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics, 11(3), 479–495. doi: 10.22363/2313-2299-2020-11-3-479-495

Eriksen, T. H. (1995). We and Us: Two Modes of Group Identification. Journal of Peace Research, 32(4), 427–436. doi: 10.1177/0022343395032004004

Gailīte, G. (2012a). Latviešu karikatūra XIX gs. Beigās XX gs. Sākumā kā nacionālās identitātes veidošanās un attīstības faktors (Latvian caricature as a factor of forming and developing national identity at the end of the 19th—The beginning of the 20th century). Letonica, (2), 25-52. (In Latvian).

Gailīte, G. (2013a). “Mother Latvia” in Constructing Self and Other: A Case of Latvian Caricature 19th century (D. Demski, I. Sz. Kristóf, & K. Baraniecka-Olszevwka, Eds.). Budapest: l’Harmattan.

Gailīte, G. (2013b). The Bear and Latvia: images of Latvian-Russian relations in caricature. Labyrinth: the Journal of Socio-Humanitarian Studies , (4), 29–40. (In Russian).

Gamson, W. A., & Stuart, D. (1992). Media Discourse as a Symbolic Contest: The Bomb in Political Cartoons. Sociological Forum, 7(1), 55–86. doi: 10.1007/BF01124756

George, J., Devetak, R., & Percy, S. (2017). An Introduction to International Relations. Cambridge University Press.

Gurevitch, M., & Levy, M. R. (1985). Mass Communication Review Yearbook (Vol. 5). Beverly Hills; London: Sage Publications.

Heidari-Shahreza, M. A. (2021). When a Nation Breathes Through Humor: A Sociolinguistic Perspective on Iranian Jokes About America. Society. doi: 10.1007/s12115-021-00608-5

Johnson, C., & Coleman, A. (2012). The internal Other: Exploring the dialectical relationship between regional exclusion and the construction of national identity. Cultural and Humanitarian Geography, 1(2). Retrieved from https://gumgeo.ru/index.php/gumgeo/article/view/56 (In Russian).

Khrustalev, D. (2011). The Origin of the “Russian Bear”. Novoje Literaturnoje obozrenie, (1), 137–152. (In Russian).

Koschut, S. (2018). The power of (emotion) words: On the importance of emotions for social constructivist discourse analysis in IR. Journal of International Relations and Development, 21(3), 495–522. doi: 10.1057/s41268-017-0086-0

Latvia and Russia sign final documents on the demarcation of the border. (2017, Ocrober 25). Retrieved from TASS website: https://tass.ru/mezhdunarodnaya-panorama/4676634 (In Russian).

Latvijas Avīze. (n.d.). Retrieved 18 September 2021, from LA.LV website: https://www.la.lv/

Mead, G. H. (1965). Mind, Self and Society. Chicago; London: University of Chicago Press.

Moloney, G., Holtz, P., & Wagner, W. (2013). Editorial Political Cartoons in Australia: Social Representations & and the Visual Depiction of Essentialism. Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science, 47(2), 284–298. doi: 10.1007/s12124-013-9236-0

Neatkarīgā Rīta Avīze. (n.d.). Retrieved 18 September 2021, from https://nra.lv/

Popkov, V. D. (2002). Stereotypes and Prejudice: their Impact on Interculture Communication. Journal of Sociology and Social Antropology, 5(3), 178–191. (In Russian).

Procevska, O. (2011). The Bear, the Eagle, and the Hair Hand: Metaphorization of Russia in Latvian Press. In I. Novikova (Ed.), Europe – Russia: Contexts, Discourses, Images (pp. 177–187). Riga: LU DZSC – LEVIRA.

Salamanca, D. G., & Rodrigues, J. R. (2015). The Drama of Caricature: Simplification and Deformation as Avant-Garde Rhetorical Devices. In E. Claudio & J. Cañero (Eds.), On the edge of the panel essays on comics criticism (pp. 94–108). Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Schmitt, C. (1996). The Concept of the Political. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Tavory, I. (2014). The situations of culture: Humor and the limits of measurability. Theory and Society, 43(3–4), 275–289. doi: 10.1007/s11186-014-9222-7

Troitskiy, S. (2020). The Imagological Bestiary in the Political Caricature at the turn of the 19th – 20th centuries, 1890-1905: Zoophisiognomy as the Instrument of Visual Rhetoric. Doxa, (1), 159–174. doi: 10.18524/2410-2601.2020.1(33).211981 (In Russian).

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.