Ingame Instances: Authors, Actors, and Recipients
pdf (Русский)

Abstract views: 164
PDF Downloads: 51

Keywords

Model of Communication Levels in Computer Games
Game Entities
Narrative Entities
Regulatory Entities
Abstract Author
Implied Player
Narration in Computer Games
Narratology
Immediacy
Hypermediacy
Game Studies
Computer Games

How to Cite

Voronin, R. (2019). Ingame Instances: Authors, Actors, and Recipients. Galactica Media: Journal of Media Studies, 1(4), 108-129. https://doi.org/10.24411/2658-7734-2019-10039

Abstract

The paper projects the theoretical and conceptual framework of narratology (particularly Wolf Schmid’s tradition and some ideas of film narratology) to computer games. The goal of the research article is an attempt to create a model of communication levels for a computer game in a generic form, to define these levels and characterize level-specific entities. Games are of a composite and syncretic media nature, for which interactivity and user – program interactions are a key feature, thus the researcher does not focus on exceptionally a story side of games (as it would be expected by structuralist narratology), but rather adapts and develops the theory from the perspective of game medium specifics. The paper analyses such game entities as the abstract author, the narrator, the regulator, the narrative actor and addressee, the procedural player, the explicit user and some others. It also problematises the explicitness, optionality, and existence of those figures. Furthermore, the researcher investigates the connection between game communication levels and different types of mediacy. The manifestation of entities and some problematic points of the model are illustrated with brief analyses of particular games. In the conclusion the paper author proposes possible implications of the model in other fields of game studies and outlines some ideas for further research.

https://doi.org/10.24411/2658-7734-2019-10039
pdf (Русский)

References

Aarseth, E. (1997). Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic Literature. Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Aarseth, E. (2007a). Doors and Perception: Fiction vs Simulation in Games. Intermédialités: Histoire et théorie des arts, des lettres et des techniques/Intermediality: History and Theory of the Arts, Literature and Technologies, 9, 35–44. doi: 10.7202/1005528ar

Aarseth, E. (2007b). I Fought the Law: Transgressive Play and The Implied Player. DiGRA Conference. doi: 10.1057/9781137429704_13

Atkins, B. (2003). More than a game: the computer game as fictional form. Manchester and New York: Manchester University Press.

Bordwell, D. (2007). Three Dimensions of Film Narrative. Poetics of Cinema. New York, NY: Routledge. Retrieved from http://www.davidbordwell.net/books/poetics_03narrative.pdf

Branigan, E. (1992.) Narrative Comprehension and Film. London; New York: Routledge. Retrieved from https://is.muni.cz/el/1421/jaro2012/FAV221/um/Branigan_Edward_-_Narrative.comprehension.and.film.pdf

Chatman, S. (1990). Coming to Terms: The Rhetoric of Narrative in Fiction and Film. Ithaca.

Gaudreult, A. (1988). From Literary to Cinematic: The Narrative System [Du littéraire au filmique: Système du récit]. Méridiens Klincksieck. (in French)

Gaudreult, A. & Jost, F. (2007). Annunciation and Narration. In T. Miller & R. Stam (Eds.), A companion to film theory. Wiley-Blackwell. doi: 10.1002/9780470998410

Genette, G. (1972). The Narrative Discourse. Figures (Vol. 2, pp. 60–280). Moscow. (in Russian)

Heide-Smith, J. (2006). Plans and Purposes: How Videogame Goals Shape Player Behaviours. PhD Dissertation, Copenhagen. Retrieved from http://jonassmith.dk/weblog/wp-content/dissertation1-0.pdf

Juul, J. (2001). Games Telling stories? A Brief Note on Games and Narratives. Game Studies, 1, 1. Retrieved from http://gamestudies.org/0101/juul-gts/

Juul, J. (2003). The Game, the Player, the World: Looking for a Heart of Gameness. Digital Games Research Conference, 30–45. Retrieved from https://www.jesperjuul.net/text/gameplayerworld/

Juul, J. (2005). Half-Real: Videogames between Real Rules and Fictional Worlds. Cambridge, MA; L.: The MIT Press.

Juul, J. (2007). Without a goal. In T. Krzywinska & B. Atkins (Eds.), Videogame/Player/Text. Manchester: Manchester University Press. Retrieved from http://www.jesperjuul.net/text/withoutagoal/

Jørgensen, K. (2013). GWI: The Gameworld Interface. The Philosophy of Computer Games Conference. Bergen. Retrieved from https://gamephilosophy2013.w.uib.no/files/2013/09/Jorgensen-PoCG2013.pdf

Lamzina, A. V. (2003). A frame of a literary work. In Nikolyukin, A. N. (Eds.), A Literary Encyclopedia of Terms and Concepts (pp. 848–853). Moscow: Intelvak. (in Russian)

Ryan, M.-L. (2009). From Narrative Games to Playable Stories: Toward a Poetics of Interactive Narrative. Storyworlds: A Journal of Narrative Studies, 1, 43–59. Retrieved from http://www.ctcs505.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/Ryan-Narrative-Games.pdf

Salen, K. & Zimmerman, E. (2003). Rules of Play — Game Design Fundamentals. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Schmid, W. (2003). Narratology. Moscow: Yaziky slavyanskoy kulturi. Retrieved from http://www.philol.msu.ru/~discours/images/stories/speckurs/schmid.pdf

Tavinor, G. (2009). The Art of Videogames. Wiley-Blackwell. Doi: 10.1002/9781444310177

Tyupa, V. I. (2002). An Overview of Modern Narratology. Critika i Semiotika, 5, 5–31. Retrieved from http://www.philology.nsc.ru/journals/kis/pdf/CS_05/cs05tupa.pdf (in Russian)

Zagal, J., Debus, M. & Cardona-Rivera, R. (2019). On the Ultimate Goals of Games: Winning, Finishing, and Prolonging. The 13th International Philosophy of Computer Games Conference, St Petersburg. Retrieved from http://rogel.io/content/2-publications/zagal2019ultimate.pdf

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.